Understanding Dog Dementia: Signs, Stages, and Solutions

dog dementia

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As a loving pet owner, you know your dog, sometimes even better than you know yourself, and when your dog starts doing things that they have never done before, naturally you are going to start worrying. In some cases, your dog may be suffering from dog dementia, also known as Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CCD), This condition affects older dogs, much like it does older adults.

It is important, that as a responsible dog owner, you recognize the symptoms that could point towards dementia in your dog and intervene as soon as possible to improve the quality of your beloved dog’s golden years.

In this blog, we will learn more about dog dementia, how to recognize the symptoms, understand its progression, and introduce some strategies that will help manage some of the symptoms.

Demystifying Dog Dementia

dementia in dogs

Let us start from the beginning. Dog dementia (CCD) is a degenerative brain disorder that can affect older dogs. Under normal circumstances, older dogs will naturally start to experience some level of cognitive decline as they age, but CCD is much more than just an effect of normal aging.

CCD causes a decline in memory, awareness, learning, and perception in your dog, and is often the cause of significant behavioral changes in your canine companion. Sadly, it is estimated that up to 68% of dogs aged 15 years and older show signs of the disease, and while the exact cause of CCD is not fully understood, it is said to be linked to changes in the brain as your dog ages.

Recognizing the Signs

dementia in dogs

If you think that your dog may be suffering from CCD, then it is important to recognize the symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms are usually, changes in sleeping patterns, house training changes, disorientation, increased anxiety and aggression, and differences when interacting with family members.


In some cases, there may be some signs and symptoms that a pet owner may not initially notice. These can be excessive licking, staring into space, and showing less interest in activities that your dog used to love.

Does My Dog Have Dementia Quiz

The following quiz will help dog owners decide to take their dogs for further assessment and a proper diagnosis by a veterinary specialist.

Could My Dog Have Dementia (CCD)?



Does your dog seem disoriented or confused even when they are around familiar places?


Has there been a change in your dog’s sleep patterns?


Does your dog battle to recognize familiar faces?


Has your dog forgotten the usual commands given to them?


Does your dog seem anxious or agitated?


Has your dog’s appetite changed?


Does your dog suddenly seem to battle with stairs and obstacles?


Has your dog started pacing or circling?


Does your dog show less interest in activities that they used to love?


Is your dog less responsive to visual and verbal cues?


Has there been a change in house training such as urinary or fecal incontinence?


Has your dog started to bark and howl more than usual?


Have you noticed weight loss or gain in your dog?


If you answered yes to many of the questions, then this could be a sign that your dog has or is in the early stages of dementia. For an accurate diagnosis, however, it is crucial to contact your veterinary specialist and make an appointment to see them.

The Progression: Understanding the Stages

dog dementia

There are in essence, three stages of CCD, and the condition progresses from mild, to severe. It is important that as a pet owner, you know what to expect so that you can support your dog as much as possible.

Stage 1: Mild Cognitive Impairment

Stage one is the early stage of dog dementia and is normally characterized by subtle changes in behavior that can easily mimic the usual symptoms of normal aging.

These signs may include:

  • Increased forgetfulness
  • Mild to moderate confusion
  • No or little interest in activities.
  • A Change in sleep patterns.

Stage 2: Moderate Cognitive Dysfunction

Symptoms will start to become more noticeable as the disease progresses, and your dog will start to show some signs of moderate cognitive decline which may include:

  • Disorientation and confusion
  • Severe changes in sleep patterns
  • Difficulty with housetraining
  • Increased anxiety or agitation
  • No interest in social interactions

Stage 3: Severe Cognitive Dysfunction

During the later stages of dementia, your dog will often display several symptoms of cognitive decline These may include:

  • Severe disorientation
  • Extreme changes in behavior
  • Total loss of house training
  • Unable to recognize familiar individuals
  • Lack of responsiveness

Unfortunately, at this stage of the disease, your furry friend will require specialized care and support to ensure that they are comfortable and happy. Your veterinarian will most likely focus on symptom management and palliative care to improve your dog’s overall quality of life.


You can use charts or visual aids to help you create and understand the roadmap to the stages of dementia. This will help you and your family members to understand what to expect, and how to better care for your dog.

When Your Dog is Diagnosed

Dog dementia

Once your veterinarian has diagnosed your dog with dementia, you need to remain as calm as possible. Remember that your dog can feel when there is something wrong with their owner.

While the diagnosis may be extremely overwhelming, it is important to focus on what comes next, and how you can help your furry friend live out their golden years comfortably.

Managing Dog Dementia

There is unfortunately no cure for CCD, but there are many ways that you can help improve your dog’s quality of life with various management techniques.

Traditional Treatments

Your vet may prescribe medication to help manage the symptoms that are often associated with dog dementia. These medications may include:

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

To reduce behavioral symptoms commonly associated with CCD, your vet may prescribe drugs such as selegiline or propentofylline.


Vitamin E or selegiline can help prevent oxidative stress and protect your dog’s brain cells from further damage.


If your dog is suffering from agitation of anxiety, your veterinarian may prescribe medications such as trazodone or alprazolam.

Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids can be used as a way to manage pain or inflammation that can be associated with CCD.

Speak to your veterinarian about your dog’s symptoms so that they can tailor the treatment plan to suit the needs of your dog.

Dog Dementia Supplements

Many supplements can be given to dogs as a way to support their brain health and cognitive function. These can include:

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:

These are found in fish oil supplements and are known to have many anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce cognitive decline in dogs suffering from CCD.


Certain supplements such as vitamin E, vitamin C, or coenzyme Q10 can assist in protecting the brain cells from oxidative damage and in turn, slow down the progression of CCD.

SAM-e (S-Adenosylmethionine):

SAM-e supports cognitive function and may help alleviate symptoms of depression or anxiety in dogs with CCD.

Always remember to consult with a professional before giving these supplements to your dog!

Lifestyle Modifications

Making environmental adjustments and lifestyle modifications can significantly improve the well-being of dogs with dementia. Some recommended changes include:


Continue keeping to your dog’s regular routine, and keep feeding, walking, and sleeping times consistent.


Use puzzles, toys, and interactive games to keep your dog’s brain stimulated.

Environmental Modifications

Reduce clutter in your home and use night lights to help your dog navigate its surroundings better.


Ensure that your dog has a quiet safe space where they can rest without being disturbed.

Always take your dog for regular check-ups at your veterinary clinic to ensure that their treatment plan remains effective.

Can You Prevent Dog Dementia?


Environmental enrichment and mental stimulation can help maintain cognitive function and slow the progression of dementia in aging dogs.

While dog dementia cannot be entirely prevented, there are certain things that dog owners can do to delay the onset and progression of their dog’s decline.


Proper nutrition and providing your dog with a balanced diet may help protect brain cells from damage and support cognitive function.


Regular exercise is important for all dogs, irrespective of age. For dogs with CCD, physical activity can help increase blood flow to the brain and stimulate the growth of new brain cells.

Mental Stimulation

Engage in activities that challenge the mind, such as puzzle toys, interactive games, and training sessions to help keep dogs mentally sharp.

Case Study 1

Max is a 15-year-old Labrador Retriever who was diagnosed with CCD after his owners noticed that he seemed to be disorientated and anxious. His owner decided to embark on a holistic approach to his diagnosis and decided to change his diet, and exercise routine and increase mental stimulation. Max was given omega-3 fatty acids as well as antioxidants in a bid to increase his brain health. He was also taken for daily walks and mental stimulation sessions. Over time, Max started to show significant improvement and was able to have a better quality of life adding to his senior years.

Case Study 2

Lunar is a 10-year-old poodle who started to show signs of aggression towards her family members. After she was diagnosed with CCD, her owners introduced a care plan that included massage therapy to promote relaxation and reduce muscle tension. They also changed Lunar’s environment by creating a calm atmosphere with soothing music and aromatherapy. Lunar’ symptoms improved significantly, allowing her to have a better quality of life.

Supporting Your Dog (and Yourself) Through This Journey

dementia in dogs

As a loving and responsible pet owner, it is important to support your canine companions through this stage of their lives. Always practice, patience and understanding, especially if your dog acts out of character. At the same time, dog owners need to look after themselves during this emotionally taxing time.

Here are some ways to support both your dog and you through this journey:

Educate Yourself

The more you know about CCD, the more you will be able to tackle the symptoms head-on and anticipate what your dog is going to need going forward.

Stay Positive

While, it is easier said than done, it is important to remain positive and focus on the relationship that you have with your dog. Try to find ways in which you can adapt to the changes that your dog is going through.

Be Patient and Understanding

Be patient when your dog exhibits behavior such as confusion, agitation, and disorientation. Try not to react with anger, and instead give your dog reassurance and comfort during any moments of distress.

Seek Professional Support

Don’t hesitate to reach out to your veterinarian or a veterinary behaviorist for guidance and support. They can offer advice and recommend the best management strategies.

Take Care of Yourself

If you are not looking after your well-being, then you are not going to be able to be able to give your dog the support that it deserves. Take breaks when you need to and practice self-care.

Celebrate Your Time Together

Always take the time to engage in activities that your dog enjoys, and make every moment memorable, regardless of the challenges presented by your dog’s dementia.


In a nutshell, being able to recognize the signs and symptoms of CCD in your dog can help you take proactive steps to support them through this journey and ultimately add to their quality of life. Take your dog for regular check-ups so that your veterinarian can tailor treatment plans to suit your dog’s individual needs.

Bear in mind, that this is not necessarily the end of the road, and that you and your beloved canine can still have many happy and memorable moments together during their golden years.

When I am old and grey, my step might be slower, I may not hear as well.
I may not see as well, I may not feel as well. But… My love will be the same. My devotion will be the same. My appreciation will be the same. My heart and soul are grateful. For all that you have done and do… When I am old and grey.

Written By: Bridget of Linked Souls

Glossary of Terms

Dog Dementia (Canine Cognitive Dysfunction): A condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline in aging dogs. Symptoms may include disorientation, confusion, and changes in behavior.

Cholinesterase Inhibitors:

Medications that help improve cognitive function by increasing levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.


Substances that help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, and possibly slow down the progression of dementia in dogs.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:

Essential fatty acids found in fish oil supplements have anti-inflammatory properties and may support brain health in aging dogs.

SAM-e (S-Adenosylmethionine):

A compound that supports cognitive function and may help to treat the symptoms of depression or anxiety in dogs with dementia.


Medications used to reduce anxiety or agitation in dogs with dementia.

Resources for Further Reading and Support:


“Through a Dog’s Eyes: Understanding Our Dogs by Understanding How They See the World” by Jennifer Arnold

“The Dog’s Mind: Understanding Your Dog’s Behavior” by Bruce Fogle


The Senior Dogs Project

Dog Aging Project

Support Organizations:

The Grey Muzzle Organization

The Alzheimer’s Association Pet Therapy Program

Disclosure: Some of the links in this article may be affiliate links, which can provide compensation to Dog Life Mag at no cost to you if you decide to purchase the product or service. You can read our full affiliate disclosure in our privacy policyThis site is not intended to provide financial advice or replace your veterinarian’s recommendations and is for entertainment only. Please check with your veterinarian first before giving your pet any medication, treatment, or new foods and we recommend following your veterinarian’s recommendations. 

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